But others provide for the most sensible climate measures outside the Paris agreement. Some experts are calling for the creation of a climate club – an idea advocated by Yale University economist William Nordhaus – that would penalize countries that fail to live up to their commitments or join. Others propose new contracts [PDF] applicable to certain programs or sectors that complement the Paris Agreement. To contribute to the goals of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national climate change plans (national fixed contributions, NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. The statistical approach certainly has limitations and the results reported here are very preliminary. They are sensitive to decisions about the data used. Per capita income data may vary depending on the year and the exchange rate used to compare countries. Estimates of CONSTRUCTION emissions may also vary. However, given that the issue of the possible allocation of emission targets appears to be arbitrary in nature, these results indicate a reasonable approach. The proposal contains the principle of progressivity and avoids the ineman practical proposals of some representatives of some developing countries for rich countries to redistribute some of their wealth to poor countries. How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be constantly monitored online (via the Climate Action Tracker  and the climate clock).
Paragraphs 6.4 to 6.7 introduce a mechanism “that contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gases and supports sustainable development.”  Although there is not yet a concrete name for the mechanism, many parties and observers have informally partnered around the name of the “sustainable development mechanism” or “SDM”.   The MDS is seen as the successor to the Clean Development Mechanism, a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol that would allow the parties to jointly monitor emissions reductions for their planned national contributions. The Sustainable Development Mechanism sets the framework for the future of the post-Kyoto sustainable development mechanism (2020). [must update] Another key difference between the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol is its scope. While the Kyoto Protocol distinguishes between Schedule 1 countries and those not annexed to Schedule 1, this branch is scrambled in the Paris Agreement, as all parties must submit emission reduction plans.  While the Paris Agreement continues to emphasize the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities” – the recognition that different nations have different capacities and duties to combat climate change – it does not offer a specific separation between developed and developing countries.  It therefore appears that negotiators will have to continue to address this issue in future rounds of negotiations, although the debate on differentiation could take on a new dynamic.  Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement.