Evaluation. The learning of students and pharmacists, the effectiveness of the content presented and the perceived value of the material were assessed. Results regarding quiz questions, knowledge assessment, review of patient cases, pre- and post-seminar surveys, and the rate of voluntary certification of students were collected and analyzed. Out of 132 student pharmacists enrolled in the course, 121 students encountered skills on their first attempt to finalize the knowledge assessment and 126 students encountered skills on their first attempt to complete the practical exam. A survey conducted before and after the training showed that once the course was completed, pharmacy students were significantly more comfortable performing and recommending services. Following the fda`s failure to act, a Washington pharmacist worked with a local healthcare provider to develop and implement Collaborative Drug Therapy Agreements (CDTAs) to treat patients with minor disorders and illnesses at a community pharmacy. The Washington State Pharmacy Association (WSPA), other municipal pharmacists, Washington State University and the University of Washington have built on this model by developing training to help other pharmacists interested in expanding clinical services in community pharmacies. The working group developed educational modules developed as part of a 20-hour continuing education certificate program, the WSPA Clinical Community Pharmacist Training Program (WSPA CCP), established in 201516. with minimally invasive or complex processes. While pharmacists do not need to undergo additional training to create and practice a CDTA in Washington, the creators believed that additional training on the identification and treatment of these pathologies would give pharmacists additional confidence in the execution of these services and provide evidence of knowledge that can be shared with a doctor to promote the creation of CDTAs. At the end of the live seminar, students were required to demonstrate competence by achieving a minimum assessment of 80% of skills, both in an electronic knowledge assessment and in a practical examination of patients.
The knowledge assessment consisted of 18 multiple-choice questions and was submitted electronically via ExamSoft (ExamSoft Worldwide, Inc., Dallas, TX). The questions classified in Bloom`s taxonomy as a level of knowledge or application required students to be informed of the slightest complaints and states or to correctly apply this knowledge to the patient`s short vignettes.19 The assessment questions were designed to present the same level of difficulty as the formative quiz and to be associated with the learning objectives for the clinical modules. Meetings with pharmacists and pharmacy organizations prior to the development of SKC-APC`s CDTA toolkit helped define the types of information and materials needed to support effective partnerships between pharmacy and public health. SKC-APC organized a Pharmaceutical Leadership Summit to bring together 35 local organizations such as public health; commercial, independent, hospital and ethnic pharmacies; and medical care companies. The CPA has also formed a Pharmaceutical Operations Advisory Committee to discuss how pharmacies could be more involved in public health emergencies.. . . .