We are a U.S. government commission that promotes human rights, military security, and economic cooperation in 57 countries in Europe, Eurasia, and North America. Nine commissioners are members of the Senate, nine are members of the House of Representatives and three are executive officials. The Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA), the public energy provider, dominates the electricity sector and is responsible for all planning, construction and operation of electricity. The NEA is also the sole purchaser of electricity from all IPPs and is an agent for all power purchase agreements for energy exchanges with India. The Ministry of Water Resources is responsible for all public and private activities related to the supply of hydroelectricity. The Nepal Oil Corporation has a monopoly on the sale and distribution of all petroleum products throughout the country. Apart from these three main actors, the Ministry of Energy was recently established in 2009 to “manage Nepal`s energy sector” and “develop energy resources to accelerate development”, including activities such as policy-making, planning, regulation and research. It has an Energy Development Department responsible for ensuring transparent energy rules and facilitating private sector participation. The Ministry of environment implements all environmental impact assessments and coordinates climate change adaptation and mitigation programmes. The National Development Council adopts macroeconomic guidelines from the National Planning Commission for the preparation of annual and five-year plans. A Water and Energy Commission, a Water Resources Development Council and an Environmental Protection Council apply all rules relating to water resources and environmental permits or authorizations. Finally, the Ministry of Industry plays a minor role and has been tasked with monitoring audits and energy efficiency efforts in the industrial sector.
Although it is not an independent high-level ministry, the Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), established under the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, receives special mention, given that it is the “nodes” agency for the promotion and dissemination of all renewable energies in the country, as well as all major electrification programs far from the grid.  Oil is Nepal`s second largest energy fuel after firewood and accounts for 8% of Nepal`s primary energy consumption. . . .